Mountain Hypothermia – English Presentation

Mountain Hypothermia

“A decrease in the core body temperature to a level at which normal muscular and cerebral functions are impaired”

  • Mountain Hypothermia is potentially a dangerous problem faced by hill walkers at any time of year.
  • The Core consists of the Brain, Heart, Lungs and other vital organs
  • The Shell consists of the limbs, skin and muscle
  • Normal body core temperature is 37ºC
  • The body core temperature has to fall from its normal 37ºC by only 2ºC to cause hypothermia problems
  • This temperature can continue to fall to a life threatening 28ºC

Causes

  • Cold        –               An important factor but rarely causes mountain hypothermia by itself
  • Wet        –               Water reduces the insulating properties of clothing, and evaporation from wet clothing takes a lot of heat from the body
  • Wind      –               Causes heat loss on exposed skin and through non-windproof clothing, as well as increasing the rate of evaporation from wet clothing

A combination of any 2 or all 3 of the above can cause mountain hypothermia

Other factors that contribute greatly to mountain hypothermia are

  • Exhaustion             –               This is a major factor.  It can by caused by walking too far, too fast, carrying too heavy a load, hunger and poor clothing.
  • Morale                   –               Low morale usually happens because of exhaustion or a combination of the above

Signs and Symptoms

All Walkers must be aware of mountain hypothermia and know what warning signs to look for.

You should be keeping an eye on each other during a day out.  The casualty is usually the last person to realise that something is wrong.

If one person in a group is showing signs of mountain hypothermia, check with everyone else in your party, they might be showing symptoms as well.  You’ve all been out in the same conditions

Watch out for the ‘umbles’

The Stumbles, Mumbles, Fumbles and Grumbles

ºC Symptoms
37 Normal body temperature
35 Shivering, looks cold, feels cold
34 Change in personality, introverted, withdrawn, ‘switched off’
33 Shivering stops, drowsy, lowered level of consciousness
32 Limbs stiffen up
31 Progresses quickly to unconsciousness
30 Fixed dilated pupils
29 Heart (Pulse) irregularity
26 Death

The symptoms do not have to appear in a specific order

Your body can skip a lot of the symptoms if you are losing body heat at an accelerated rate

The sooner you identify the symptoms, the easier it is to recover

Signs and Symptoms

Early warning signs

– Feeling cold and unhappy

– Complaining and grumbling

– Slowing down or lagging behind

– Difficulty crossing rough ground

– Slowing mentally and physically

– Slurring speech

– Poor coordination

– Spells of shivering

Danger signs

– Shivering stops

– Slow jerky movement

– Falling down

– Collapse

– In and out of consciousness

– Hallucinations

– Slow breathing and pulse

More serious signs

– Feeling bitterly cold

– Stumbling

– Judgement affected, becoming     confused

– Drowsy

– Difficulty getting back on feet after rest

– Shivering becoming uncontrollable

– Disregard for cold (Jacket open, gloves off etc)

Prevention

“Prevention is better than the cure”

  • Wear proper wind and waterproof clothing to protect you from head to toes.
  • Hats, gloves, rain jacket and leggings should always be carried
  • Attempt only what you know you can physically achieve
  • Eat sufficient energy producing food before and during your walk – drink regularly
  • Plan your route taking weather conditions into account
  • Be prepared to abandon your days plan, and turn back or get off on the quickest (and safest) route if group members start to show symptoms

Treatment

The basic principles of re-warming a hypothermic victim is to conserve the heat they have, and replace the body fuel they are burning up to generate heat.

  • SEEK SHELTER – try to get them out of the wind and rain.  A bivi bag or group shelter is invaluable to help with this
  • Give additional clothing for the whole body – including a hat.  If you are sheltered from the weather replace wet clothing
  • Insulate from the ground
  • Warm sweet drinks and high energy food
  • NO alcohol, caffeine or tobacco
  • Reassurance, helps moral and cheers up victim
  • Do not use rubbing or external heat source.  This takes heat away from the core
  • While giving them all this attention, remember to keep an eye on each other for symptoms

After Treatment on the hills

  • If the casualty has severe hypothermia or has lost consciousness, do not attempt to evacuate off the mountain
  • Keep the casualty as comfortable as possible and send for help
  • If the casualty shows less severe signs of hypothermia, do not attempt to finish the walk – find the quickest and safest route off the mountain
  • Once off the hills, continue reheating and refuelling
  • Also, seek medical advice

It is important to note that if a person has had hypothermia once during the day, they are more susceptible to having it a second time.  And it will be more severe

 

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Active and Passive Voice All Tenses

Active and Passive Voice All Tenses

Kalimat aktif (active voice) adalah kalimat dimana subject-nya melakukan pekerjaan, sebaliknya, kalimat pasif (passive voice) adalah kalimat dimana subject-nya dikenai pekerjaan oleh object kalimat. Active voice lebih sering digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari dibandingkan dengan passive voice. Namun demikian, sering kita temukan passive voice di surat-surat kabar, artikel-artikel di majalah-majalah dan tulisan-tulisan ilmiah. Passive voice digunakan karena object dari active voice merupakan informasi yang lebih penting dibandingkan dengan subject-nya.

Contoh :

  • Active : We fertilize the soil every 6 months
  • Passive: The soil is fertilized by us every 6 months

Dari contoh ini dapat kita lihat bahwa:

  1. Object dari active voice (the soil) menjadi subject dari passive voice
  2. Subject dari active voice (we) menjadi object dari passive voice. Perhatikan pula bahwa terjadi perubahan dari subject pronoun ‘we’ menjadi object pronoun ‘us’.
  3. Verb1 (fertilize) pada active voice menjadi verb3 (fertilized) pada passive voice.
  4. Ditambahkannya be ‘is’ di depan verb3. Be yang digunakan adalah tergantung pada subject passive voice dan tenses yang digunakan. (Perhatikan pola-pola passive voice di bawah).
  5. Ditambahkannya kata ‘by’ di belakang verb3. Namun, jika object dari passive voice dianggap tidak penting atau tidak diketahui, maka object biasanya tidak dikemukakan dan begitu pula kata ‘by’.
  6. Khusus untuk kalimat-kalimat progressive (present, past, past perfect, future, past future, dan past future perfect continuous, perlu menambahkan ‘being’ di depan verb3). Kalau tidak ditambahkan “being”, tensisnya akan berubah, bukan progressive/continuous lagi. Perhatikan contoh-contoh pada poin h – o di bawah.

Berdasarkan keenam poin di atas maka passive voice mengikuti pola sebagai berikut:

Subject + be + Verb3 + by + Object + modifier

Pola active dan passive voice pada tiap tensis

a. Jika active voice dalam simple present tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah is, am atau are.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He meets them everyday.
  • Passive  : They are met by him everyday.
  • Active    : She waters this plant every two days.
  • Passive  : This plant is watered by her every two days.

b. Jika active voice dalam simple past tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah was atauwere

Contoh:

  • Active    : He met them yesterday
  • Passive  : They were met by him yesterday
  • Active    : She watered this plant this morning
  • Passive  : This plant was watered by her this morning

c. Jika active voice dalam present perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah beenyang diletakkan setelah auxiliary has atau have, sehingga menjadi ‘has been’ atau ‘have been’

Contoh:

  • Active    : He has met them
  • Passive  : They have been met by him
  • Active    : She has watered this plant for 5 minutes.
  • Passive  : This plant has been watered by her for 5 minutes.

 

d. Jika active voice dalam past perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah beenyang diletakkan setelah auxiliary had, sehingga menjadi had been

Contoh:

  • Active    : He had met them before I came.
  • Passive  : They had been met by him before I came.
  • Active    : She had watered this plant for 5 minutes when I got here
  • Passive  : This plant had been watered by her for 5 minutes when I got here

e. Jika active voice dalam simple future tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah be

Contoh:

  • Active    : He will meet them tomorrow.
  • Passive  : They will be met by him tomorrow.
  • Active    : She will water this plant this afternoon.
  • Passive  : This plant will be watered by her this afternoon.
  • Active    : The farmers are going to harvest the crops next week
  • Passive  : The crops are going to be harvested by the farmers next week.

f. Jika active voice dalam future perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah beenyang diletakkan setelah auxiliary will have, sehingga menjadi ‘will have been’

Contoh:

  • Active    : He will have met them before I get there tomorrow.
  • Passive  : They will have been met by him before I get there tomorrow.
  • Active   : She will have watered this plant before I get here this afternoon.
  • Passive  : This plant will have been watered by her before I get here this afternoon.

g. Jika active voice dalam past future perfect tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalahbeen yang diletakkan setelah auxiliary would have, sehingga menjadi ‘would have been’.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He would have met them.
  • Passive  : They would have been met by him.
  • Active    : She would have watered this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant would have been watered by her.

h. Jika active voice dalam present continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (is, am atau are)being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He is meeting them now.
  • Passive  : They are being met by him now.
  • Active    : She is watering this plant now.
  • Passive  : This plant is being watered by her now.

 

i. Jika active voice dalam past continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (wasatau were) + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He was meeting them.
  • Passive  : They were being met by him.
  • Active    : She was watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant was being watered by her.

j. Jika active voice dalam perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah (has/have) been + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He has been meeting them.
  • Passive  : They have been being met by him.
  • Active    : She has been watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant has been being watered by her.

k. Jika active voice dalam past perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah had been + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He had been meeting them.
  • Passive  : They had been being met by him.
  • Active    : She had been watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant had been being watered by her.

l. Jika active voice dalam future continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalahwill be + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He will be meeting them.
  • Passive  : They will be being met by him.
  • Active    : She will be watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant will be being watered by her.

m. Jika active voice dalam past future continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah would be + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He would be meeting them.
  • Passive  : They would be being met by him.
  • Active    : She would be watering this plant.
  • Passive   : This plant would be being watered by her.

n. Jika active voice dalam future perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah will have been + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He will have been meeting them.
  • Passive  : They will have been being met by him.
  • Active    : She will have been watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant will have been being watered by her.

o. Jika active voice dalam past future perfect continuous tense, maka ‘be’ passive voice-nya adalah would have been + being.

Contoh:

  • Active    : He would be meeting them.
  • Passive  : They would be being met by him.
  • Active    : She would be watering this plant.
  • Passive  : This plant would be being watered by her.

Contoh-contoh yang lain:

  1. Koko’s nose is bleeding. He was punched by his friend right on his nose. (Hidung Koko sedang berdarah. Dia dipukul oleh temannya tepat di hidungnya).
  2. The Indonesian football team was beaten by the Saudi Arabian team. (Team sepakbola Indonesia dikalahkan oleh team arab Saudi).
  3. These plants were watered by my sister a few minutes ago. (Tanaman-tanaman ini disirami oleh adikku beberapa menit yang lalu).
  4. There is no meal left. All has been devoured by Yeyes. (Tidak ada makan yang tersisa. Semuanya telah dilahap habis oleh Yeyes).
  5. English is studied by all high school students. (Bahasa Inggris dipelajari oleh semua murid sekolah menengah lanjutan (SMP dan SMA).